Laws in most states grant adult rights to teenagers when they turn 18, and/or 21. These laws were not just carelessly fashioned but were based on observations of teenage behavior. The general thinking was that an immature person is not an adult and thus not able to make the decisions that adults make. Apparently there was general agreement that both 18 and 21 seemed like ages at which good decision making was possible. This was not based so much on science as it was general consensus. Accordingly teenagers were granted adult rights at age 18, although some rights, like buying alchohol were delayed to age 21.
However, an exception was made when the teenager got involved with the legal system. There, children as young as 14 (sometimes younger) have been treated as adults if charged with a serious crime. This change stemmed largley from fear about a surge of “super predators in the 90’s. So while an “underage” youth had no adult rights, the legal system had the right to treat him/her as an adult if the prosecutor so chooses. Many thousands of juveniles were convicted of crimes as adults and sentenced to long terms in adult prisons. Over the subsequent years more and more states began changing the laws to “raise the Age” of adult responsibility to 18. These changes were no longer based merely on popular thinking, but on advances in neuroscience. Research in that area has proven that teen brains are still very much in the developmental stage……in fact, it is now commonly accepted that full brain maturity does not occur till the early to mid twenties. Accordingly, some states are re-visiting their laws, to more appropriately tailor their responses to youthful illegal behavior.
Texas is an outlier when it comes to such evidence based change. It is one of just six states that still keeps the option of treating 17 year olds as adults. In the 85th legislative session this year, efforts to “Raise the Age” to 18 failed. Also killed was a bill to permit first parole review after 20 years for prisoners sentenced as teenagers. Evidence based change will come to Texas. But like any change in the area of criminal justice, it will be slow.